Gender Differences in Tackling Fake News: Different Degrees of Concern, but Same Problems

media and communication

In the current media ecosystem, in which the traditional media coexists with new players who are able to produce information and spread it widely, there is growing concern about the increasing prominence of fake news. Despite some significant efforts to determine the effects of misinformation, the results are so far inconclusive. Previous research has sought to analyze how the public perceive the effects of disinformation. This article is set in this context, and its main objective is to investigate users’ perception of fake news, as well as identify the criteria on which their recognition strategies are based. The research pays particular attention to determining whether there are gender differences in the concern about the effects of fake news, the degree of difficulty in detecting fake news and the most common topics it covers. The results are based on the analysis of a representative survey of the Spanish population (N = 1,001) where participants were asked about their relationship with fake news and their competence in determining the veracity of the information, and their ability to identify false content were assessed. The findings show that men and women’s perception of difficulty in identifying fake news is similar, while women are more concerned than men about the pernicious effects of misinformation on society. Gender differences are also found in the topics of the false information received. A greater proportion of men receive false news on political issues, while women tend to more frequently receive fake news about celebrities.

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The Life of news and the wealth of media companies in the digital world: Reader revenues and professional practices in a post-COVID world

Digidoc

This paper is a result of the project News, networks, and users in the hybrid media system. Transformation of media industries and the news in the post-industrial era (RTI2018-095775-B-C43). We present our insights on the latest movements of the Spanish media industry and their influence in the conception of news production during 2020. Specifically, we focus on the implementation of news business models, namely paywalls and membership models, and the movements regarding intellectual property to protect the industry – and their impact on journalists as well. The irruption of the COVID-19 pandemics has accelerated some tendencies in this respect.

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Perceptions on media and disinformation: ideology and polarization in the Spanish media system

Profesional de la información

The trust that citizens place in the media and whether it is conditioned by their ideological positioning are analyzed. Likewise, how ideology affects the perception of media as creators and disseminators of disinformation is studied. The results from a representative survey of the Spanish population (n = 1,000) reveal polarized media consumption in Spain. Ideology plays an important role in trust in the media, drawing well-differentiated media ecosystems according to ideology, which also affects the perception that citizens have of the media as spreaders of disinformation.

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Incidental Exposure to Non-Like-Minded News through Social Media: Opposing Voices in Echo-Chambers’ News Feeds

media and communication

Debates about post-truth need to take into account how news re-disseminates in a hybrid media system in which social networks and audience participation play a central role. Hence, there is a certain risk of reducing citizens’ exposure to politically adverse news content, creating ‘echo chambers’ of political affinity. This article presents the results of research conducted in agreement with 18 leading Spanish online news media, based on a survey (N = 6625) of their registered users. The results highlight that high levels of selective exposure that are a characteristic of offline media consumption are being moderated in the online realm. Although most of the respondents get news online from like-minded media, the figures related to those who also get news from media with a different media ideology should not be underestimated. As news consumption is becoming more ‘social,’ our research points out that Spanish citizens who are more active on social media sites are more likely to be exposed to news content from different ideological positions than those who are less active users. There is a weak association between the use of a particular social network site and gaining access to like- and non-like-minded news.

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Inequality in times of pandemics: How online media are starting to treat the economic consequences of the coronavirus crisis

Profesional de la información

In December 2019, Chinese authorities informed the World Health Organization about a new coronavirus disease that would come to be called Covid-19. The world media began reporting on this new virus and its consequences. However, reports about Covid-19 would not appear in the European and American media until their societies became aware of both the health and economic consequences of Covid-19 in March 2020. This article analyzes the online media coverage of economic inequality. The goal is to understand the formation of the public agenda, based on the impact of the disease on social classes as the main factor generating greater inequality levels, in particular inequality of opportunities as the most remarkable topic during the first stage of the pandemic. According to the first results of this content analysis, the social class divide will be deepened by the pandemic. For this study, a tool was designed to analyze both the manifest and latent content of the items. Using content analysis, an analysis of news published by 33 digital media in both Europe and Latin America from March 14 to April 14, 2020 was conducted. The results of this study show that income inequality appears as the core variable of the problem, although social classes remain important. The imbalanced access to health and education public services also receives continuous coverage in the media. However, poverty as a consequence of this situation remains an uncomfortable issue and tends to be presented in an undramatized way.

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Assessment of the innovation factors impact on journalism: Media Labs as case study

zer

In the last two decades, the profession of journalism has passed from a stage of adaptation to a scenario characterized by constant innovation. It is a context typified by the proliferation of emitters and the increasing power of receivers, in which the traditional media seek effec- tive solutions to exploit with the maximum profitability and quality the options of multiplatform, multimedia and interactive production. Innova- tion laboratories (or Media Labs) set up within major media organizations are a good indicator in this regard. This research focuses its interest on various cases of success in business, professional and content innovation in the field of journalism and communication in Spain —Lab RTVE, El Confidencial.Lab, Vocento Media Lab and the El Pais_Lab—, taking into account features such as their internal structure, the introduction of new professional profiles into the newsroom and the kinds of innovative products developed by these laboratories.

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News consumption and media coverage during the confinement by Covid-19: information overload, ideological bias and sensationalism

Profesional de la información

The Covid-19 pandemic has confined millions of citizens in their homes. The situation of isolation has many consequences at multiple levels: social, psychological, economic, educational…, and also communicative. Based on a survey to 1,122 people during the most severe confinement phase, this article aims to analyze how information consumption has been modified during this period of time, and how citizens assess media coverage of Covid-19. The results show citizenship get more news and more frequently than before the health crisis. All in all, citizens maintain a critical atitude towards media coverage of the outbreak, which is, according to the results, conditioned by the media ideology, and reported in a sensationalist way, generating unnecessary social alarm.

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Artificial intelligence systems-aided news and copyright: assessing legal implications for journalism practices

futureinternet

Automated news, or artificial intelligence systems (AIS)-aided production of news items, has been developed from 2010 onwards. It comprises a variety of practices in which the use of data, software and human intervention is involved in diverse degrees. This can affect the application of intellectual property and copyright law in many ways. Using comparative legal methods, we examine the implications of them for some legal categories, such as authorship (and hence required originality) and types of works, namely collaborative, derivative and, most especially, collective works. Sui generis and neighboring rights are also considered for examination as being appliable to AIS-aided news outputs. Our main conclusion is that the economics intellectual property rights are guaranteed in any case through collective works. We propose a shorter term of duration before entering public domain. Still, there is a place for more authorial, personal rights. It shows, however, more difficulty when coming to moral rights, especially in Common Law countries.

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Fake news and coronavirus: Detecting key players and trends through analysis of Twitter conversations

Profesional de la información

The global health crisis arising from the expansion of Covid-19 has led the WHO to coin the term infodemics to define a situation of fear and insecurity in which the dissemination of false information has become widespread. These hoaxes take advantage of this type of emotion to spread faster than the coronavirus itself, generating fear and distrust in the population. The spread of these lies, part of which circulates on social networks, is dangerous because it affects health and can make the contagion worse and cause people to die. This research aims to analyse and visualise the network created around the false news circulating on Twitter about the coronavirus pandemic using the technique of social network analysis. NodeXL Pro software has been used. Several measures of network centrality have been used to generate the network of connections between users, to represent their interaction patterns and to identify the key actors within the network. In addition, a semantic network has also been created to discover the differences in the way groups of people talk about the topic. The results show that the situation in the USA dominates the conversation, despite the fact that at that time there were hardly any cases, and Europe had become the global epicentre of the Covid-19. Despite reports of inaction by journalists and critics of the Trump government, there are several weeks in which disinformation distracts from taking more effective action and actually preventing contagion. Moreover, among the actors with the most prominent positions in the network, there is little presence of scientists and institutions that help to disprove the hoaxes and explain the hygiene measures.

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Intellectual property and transmedia informative products: A comparative, transnational legal analysis

HIPERTEXT

Transmedia products are becoming a usual practice in media, and they incorporate both professional contributions and user-generated contents. From this point of view, we propose a legal, comparative and transnational approach to the legal implications of copyright laws to transmedia products. We focus on news items and informative products. Participative or citizen journalism, fan fictions, which appeared in several media, has developed the so called transmedia narratives, and the law necessarily faces some problems derived from their particularities. Since the international trend of copyright is rather aligned with a strong approach which presumes that authors should be remunerated, or receive any compensation, for the successive exploitations of their works, we explain which is the impact of copyright (and, in general terms, intellectual property) in the distribution of both moral and exploitation rights, and more specifically transformation rights and derivative works. The legal trends towards digital single market in Europe, copyright law reforms in the United States and the particular situation of the United Kingdom in this respect will be considered.

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