This research has used the technique of Social Network Analysis to analyze the structure of network relationships that surrounds on Twitter the three more important federations of associations of rare diseases and identify key actors in their communications. Methodology. NodeXL software has been used, with visualization as a key component, to capture the network of connections of the accounts under study, represent their interaction patterns and find out the position occupied by users within the network. Conclusions. The results indicate that these associations use social networks to raise awareness, educate and inform about RD and its problems. They are very influential accounts with a high degree of connection and a great capacity for prescription due to the interest aroused in a part of the population by these pathologies and everything that surrounds them.
The term deepfake was first used in a Reddit post in 2017 to refer to videos manipulated using artificial intelligence techniques and since then it is becoming easier to create such fake videos. A recent investigation by the cybersecurity company Deeptrace in September 2019 indicated that the number of what is known as fake videos had doubled in the last nine months and that most were pornographic videos used as revenge to harm many women. The report also highlighted the potential of this technology to be used in political campaigns such as in Gabon and Malaysia.
In this sense, the phenomenon of deepfake has become a concern for governments because it poses a short-term threat not only to politics, but also for fraud or cyberbullying. The starting point of this research was Twitter’s announcement of a change in its protocols to fight fake news and deepfakes. We have used the Social Network Analysis technique, with visualization as a key component, to analyze the conversation on Twitter about the deepfake phenomenon. NodeXL was used to identify main actors and the network of connections between all these accounts. In addition, the semantic networks of the tweets were analyzed to discover hidden patterns of meaning. The results show that half of the actors who function as bridges in the interactions that shape the network are journalists and media, which is a sign of the concern that this sophisticated form of manipulation generates in this collective.
In the current media ecosystem, in which the traditional media coexists with new players who are able to produce information and spread it widely, there is growing concern about the increasing prominence of fake news. Despite some significant efforts to determine the effects of misinformation, the results are so far inconclusive. Previous research has sought to analyze how the public perceive the effects of disinformation. This article is set in this context, and its main objective is to investigate users’ perception of fake news, as well as identify the criteria on which their recognition strategies are based. The research pays particular attention to determining whether there are gender differences in the concern about the effects of fake news, the degree of difficulty in detecting fake news and the most common topics it covers. The results are based on the analysis of a representative survey of the Spanish population (N = 1,001) where participants were asked about their relationship with fake news and their competence in determining the veracity of the information, and their ability to identify false content were assessed. The findings show that men and women’s perception of difficulty in identifying fake news is similar, while women are more concerned than men about the pernicious effects of misinformation on society. Gender differences are also found in the topics of the false information received. A greater proportion of men receive false news on political issues, while women tend to more frequently receive fake news about celebrities.
The feminist movement is experiencing the rise of a new generation characterized by specific phenomena linked to technological progress, such as hashtivism, i.e., mobilization through social media. With the aim of contributing to extending our knowledge of the implications of Twitter for this as well as other social movements, this article examined eight of the most common Spanish- and English-language hashtags used to commemorate the 25 November 2018 event, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. Employing big data analysis to study social and communications phenomena, the results offer a picture of contemporary feminism through the kind of international digital dialogue or conversation that it creates, as well as questioning Twitter’s validity in terms of cohesion when it comes to uniting forces in relation to one of the movement’s most urgent struggles: eliminating violence against women in all its forms.
This paper is a result of the project News, networks, and users in the hybrid media system. Transformation of media industries and the news in the post-industrial era (RTI2018-095775-B-C43). We present our insights on the latest movements of the Spanish media industry and their influence in the conception of news production during 2020. Specifically, we focus on the implementation of news business models, namely paywalls and membership models, and the movements regarding intellectual property to protect the industry – and their impact on journalists as well. The irruption of the COVID-19 pandemics has accelerated some tendencies in this respect.
The trust that citizens place in the media and whether it is conditioned by their ideological positioning are analyzed. Likewise, how ideology affects the perception of media as creators and disseminators of disinformation is studied. The results from a representative survey of the Spanish population (n = 1,000) reveal polarized media consumption in Spain. Ideology plays an important role in trust in the media, drawing well-differentiated media ecosystems according to ideology, which also affects the perception that citizens have of the media as spreaders of disinformation.
Debates about post-truth need to take into account how news re-disseminates in a hybrid media system in which social networks and audience participation play a central role. Hence, there is a certain risk of reducing citizens’ exposure to politically adverse news content, creating ‘echo chambers’ of political affinity. This article presents the results of research conducted in agreement with 18 leading Spanish online news media, based on a survey (N = 6625) of their registered users. The results highlight that high levels of selective exposure that are a characteristic of offline media consumption are being moderated in the online realm. Although most of the respondents get news online from like-minded media, the figures related to those who also get news from media with a different media ideology should not be underestimated. As news consumption is becoming more ‘social,’ our research points out that Spanish citizens who are more active on social media sites are more likely to be exposed to news content from different ideological positions than those who are less active users. There is a weak association between the use of a particular social network site and gaining access to like- and non-like-minded news.
The present article presents the results of two educational innovation projects based on international collaborative learning, which have aimed at students acquiring the necessary digital skills to work in online media, while incorporating intercultural skills into their curriculum.
Students from five universities in Brazil, Portugal, and Spain have worked jointly and simultaneously during two academic courses in the development of multimedia reports, within the framework of the subjects on online journalism that they attend in their respective schools. The results show that this learning model arouses the interest of students and contributes to the acquisition of the proposed skills, although it also generates new challenges they must face, such as the difficulties added in the coordination, use of language, or the application of common journalistic criteria in different informative environments.
In December 2019, Chinese authorities informed the World Health Organization about a new coronavirus disease that would come to be called Covid-19. The world media began reporting on this new virus and its consequences. However, reports about Covid-19 would not appear in the European and American media until their societies became aware of both the health and economic consequences of Covid-19 in March 2020. This article analyzes the online media coverage of economic inequality. The goal is to understand the formation of the public agenda, based on the impact of the disease on social classes as the main factor generating greater inequality levels, in particular inequality of opportunities as the most remarkable topic during the first stage of the pandemic. According to the first results of this content analysis, the social class divide will be deepened by the pandemic. For this study, a tool was designed to analyze both the manifest and latent content of the items. Using content analysis, an analysis of news published by 33 digital media in both Europe and Latin America from March 14 to April 14, 2020 was conducted. The results of this study show that income inequality appears as the core variable of the problem, although social classes remain important. The imbalanced access to health and education public services also receives continuous coverage in the media. However, poverty as a consequence of this situation remains an uncomfortable issue and tends to be presented in an undramatized way.
In the last two decades, the profession of journalism has passed from a stage of adaptation to a scenario characterized by constant innovation. It is a context typified by the proliferation of emitters and the increasing power of receivers, in which the traditional media seek effec- tive solutions to exploit with the maximum profitability and quality the options of multiplatform, multimedia and interactive production. Innova- tion laboratories (or Media Labs) set up within major media organizations are a good indicator in this regard. This research focuses its interest on various cases of success in business, professional and content innovation in the field of journalism and communication in Spain —Lab RTVE, El Confidencial.Lab, Vocento Media Lab and the El Pais_Lab—, taking into account features such as their internal structure, the introduction of new professional profiles into the newsroom and the kinds of innovative products developed by these laboratories.