News consumption and media coverage during the confinement by Covid-19: information overload, ideological bias and sensationalism

Profesional de la información

The Covid-19 pandemic has confined millions of citizens in their homes. The situation of isolation has many consequences at multiple levels: social, psychological, economic, educational…, and also communicative. Based on a survey to 1,122 people during the most severe confinement phase, this article aims to analyze how information consumption has been modified during this period of time, and how citizens assess media coverage of Covid-19. The results show citizenship get more news and more frequently than before the health crisis. All in all, citizens maintain a critical atitude towards media coverage of the outbreak, which is, according to the results, conditioned by the media ideology, and reported in a sensationalist way, generating unnecessary social alarm.

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Artificial intelligence systems-aided news and copyright: assessing legal implications for journalism practices

futureinternet

Automated news, or artificial intelligence systems (AIS)-aided production of news items, has been developed from 2010 onwards. It comprises a variety of practices in which the use of data, software and human intervention is involved in diverse degrees. This can affect the application of intellectual property and copyright law in many ways. Using comparative legal methods, we examine the implications of them for some legal categories, such as authorship (and hence required originality) and types of works, namely collaborative, derivative and, most especially, collective works. Sui generis and neighboring rights are also considered for examination as being appliable to AIS-aided news outputs. Our main conclusion is that the economics intellectual property rights are guaranteed in any case through collective works. We propose a shorter term of duration before entering public domain. Still, there is a place for more authorial, personal rights. It shows, however, more difficulty when coming to moral rights, especially in Common Law countries.

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Fake news and coronavirus: Detecting key players and trends through analysis of Twitter conversations

Profesional de la información

The global health crisis arising from the expansion of Covid-19 has led the WHO to coin the term infodemics to define a situation of fear and insecurity in which the dissemination of false information has become widespread. These hoaxes take advantage of this type of emotion to spread faster than the coronavirus itself, generating fear and distrust in the population. The spread of these lies, part of which circulates on social networks, is dangerous because it affects health and can make the contagion worse and cause people to die. This research aims to analyse and visualise the network created around the false news circulating on Twitter about the coronavirus pandemic using the technique of social network analysis. NodeXL Pro software has been used. Several measures of network centrality have been used to generate the network of connections between users, to represent their interaction patterns and to identify the key actors within the network. In addition, a semantic network has also been created to discover the differences in the way groups of people talk about the topic. The results show that the situation in the USA dominates the conversation, despite the fact that at that time there were hardly any cases, and Europe had become the global epicentre of the Covid-19. Despite reports of inaction by journalists and critics of the Trump government, there are several weeks in which disinformation distracts from taking more effective action and actually preventing contagion. Moreover, among the actors with the most prominent positions in the network, there is little presence of scientists and institutions that help to disprove the hoaxes and explain the hygiene measures.

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Intellectual property and transmedia informative products: A comparative, transnational legal analysis

HIPERTEXT

Transmedia products are becoming a usual practice in media, and they incorporate both professional contributions and user-generated contents. From this point of view, we propose a legal, comparative and transnational approach to the legal implications of copyright laws to transmedia products. We focus on news items and informative products. Participative or citizen journalism, fan fictions, which appeared in several media, has developed the so called transmedia narratives, and the law necessarily faces some problems derived from their particularities. Since the international trend of copyright is rather aligned with a strong approach which presumes that authors should be remunerated, or receive any compensation, for the successive exploitations of their works, we explain which is the impact of copyright (and, in general terms, intellectual property) in the distribution of both moral and exploitation rights, and more specifically transformation rights and derivative works. The legal trends towards digital single market in Europe, copyright law reforms in the United States and the particular situation of the United Kingdom in this respect will be considered.

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Comments, What For? User Participation and Quality of the Debate in Four European Newspapers Political J-blogs

MediaWatchIn recent years, we have witnessed an increase in the spaces for content written by audiences in the news media and the growing integration of such material in areas that had been reserved for news professionals until now. And, without a doubt, political issues have been one of the ones that have generated the most debate on the networks. And, without a doubt, political issues have been one of the issues that have created the most citizen participation. To contribute to this debate, the article summarizes findings of a broader project on the activity of audiences employing qualitative research of the users’ comments collected from the political blogs of Elpais.com, Guardian.co.uk, Lemonde.fr, and Repubblica.it. As results indicate, the patterns of the audience’s participation varied across countries. Still, it coincides in that there are lower levels of dialogue between participants as well as of involvement of the authors-bloggers than expected.

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Wonder woman: romanticizing and sexualizing a feminist icon through the audiovisual

hachetetepe

Superheroin Wonder Woman was born a feminist icon in the forties of the last century. Its diffusion, first through the comic and later through the cinema, has undergone different adaptations, some with patriarchal tints. The cinematographic representation of the Amazon princess as protagonist is characterized by the hypersexualization and romantization of the character. This article aims to review and analyze whether romantic love and sexualization are resources that are repeated in all their representations and to understand if these divert the feminist discourse of this superhero.

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Behind the Comments Section: The Ethics of Digital Native News Discussions

MaCHomepageInitially offered as a digital public sphere forum, comments sections became the preferred democratic arena for gatekeepers to encourage their readers to engage in constructive dialogue about relevant issues. However, news sites require commenters to remain civil in their interactions, which led users to seek alternative ways of commenting on the news. This article explores in-depth the contents of a sample of 98,426 user-comments collected between February–March 2019 from three major Spanish digital native newspapers: ElDiario.es, ElEspañol.com, and ElConfidencial.com. The main goals were to analyze whether comments in news outlets are deliberative, to assess the quality of the debate that takes place in them, and to describe their specific features. Discourse ethics were explored to determine the discussions’ impact, the language used, the acceptance of arguments, and the recognition and civility of participants. Findings reveal that comments sections in news outlets do not have a dialogic nature and that the debates have a low-quality profile. Nonetheless, the degree of mutual respect in interaction is acceptable, with slightly observed levels of incivility. Finally, the data suggest that the focused comments are higher on social media and that memes and emojis represent a new form of digital discourse.

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The future of minority languages on the internet and young prosumers: The Basque case.

cuadernos.info

This article provides a diagnosis of the presence of Basque, compared to Spanish and English, in the creation and consumption of new Internet audiovisual formats among Basque adolescents, in the context of a bilingual society. The results derive from a survey filled out by 2,426 students of Secondary School (12-16 years old) from Guipúzcoa, and
analyze the taxonomy of Internet media products that these adolescents follow and create. The use of language and geographic distribution locate these prosumers, in whose hands is the survival of Basque language on the Internet. The data obtained proves the existence of
two crucial factors that geographically identify and locate young Basque prosumers, who play a strategic role in the survival of their language. The first is the main use of Basque over Spanish in their daily life, as well as in their academic and technological environments.
This factor is directly related to the second factor: the coexistence of different sociolinguistic realities in the Basque Country. These young prosumers mainly come from inland Basque-speaking regions, with very few living in urban areas where Spanish prevails. This research lays the foundations for the implementation of an institutional program to create engaging online audiovisual content in Basque for young people.

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Tagging feminism. Analysis of Ibero-American cybermedia

cuadernos.info

In recent years, feminism has increased its social presence, which sparks interest in learning how the media discourses transmit their values and demands to society. This study analyzes the presence and characterization of feminism in ten of the main Ibero-American digital media by analyzing 2712 terms included in the tags corresponding to the keywords that appear in the information metadata. The analysis of the interrelation of terms allows us to know which concepts, topics and people are linked to feminism, and the way in which the media approaches information on the subject. The results show, on the one hand, an unequal treatment of the subject by the Ibero-American media, as well as an unstructured use of tags to organize the media discourse. The results also show the important association between feminism and the personalities of culture and entertainment, compared to a less direct impact of the campaigns conducted on social networks and by activists. The study also corroborates that despite the increase in the total number of news stories, the discourses of victimization of women continue to be dominant among the topics associated with feminism..

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Influence of gender in electoral debates in Spain: Analysis of the social audience in #ElDebateDecisivo and #L6Neldebate

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Television debates during electoral campaigns constitute a central element within the political communication sphere. This research examines the digital conversation on Twitter on the broadcast of two television debates during the general elections campaign in Spain in April 2019: #ElDebateDecisivo of Atresmedia (among male presidential candidates) and #L6Neldebate of La Sexta (among female political candidates). The research provides a renovated perspective regarding the progressive feminisation of politics, establishing a correlation among key variables, such as the gender of the political leaders participating in the debates, the role of television as the main means during elections, and the influence of the public interaction on Twitter. Methodologically, the study pays attention to 313,343 impacts generated by 101,510 users or nodes. As pointed out in the conclusions, in the masculine debate (#ElDebateDecisivo) the active audience’s contribution to the public and political debate is defined in a more banal way, in contrast with the women’s debate ( #L6Neldebate), in which a more political consciousness is perceived.

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